Banking and Finance Study Notes for Bank Exam - Deposit Insurance and Credit Guarantee Corporation (DICGC)

Banking and Finance Study Notes

Deposit Insurance and Credit Guarantee Corporation (DICGC)

History of DICGC

The concept of insuring deposits kept with banks received attention for the first time in the year 1948 after the banking crises in Bengal. The question came up for reconsideration in the year 1949, but it was decided to hold it in abeyance till the Reserve Bank of India ensured adequate arrangements for inspection of banks. Subsequently, in the year 1950, the Rural Banking Enquiry Committee also supported the concept. Serious thought to the concept was, however, given by the Reserve Bank of India and the Central Government after the crash of the Palai Central Bank Ltd., and the Laxmi Bank Ltd. in 1960. The Deposit Insurance Corporation (DIC) Bill was introduced in the Parliament on August 21, 1961. After it was passed by the Parliament, the Bill got the assent of the President on December 07th 1961 and the Deposit Insurance Act, 1961 came into force on January 1, 1962. The Deposit Insurance Scheme was initially extended to functioning commercial banks only. This included the State Bank of India and its subsidiaries, other commercial banks and the branches of the foreign banks operating in India.

The Reserve Bank of India also promoted a public limited company on January 14, 1971, named the Credit Guarantee Corporation of India Ltd. (CGCI). The main thrust of the Credit Guarantee Schemes, introduced by the Credit Guarantee Corporation of India Ltd., was aimed at encouraging the commercial banks to cater to the credit needs of the hitherto neglected sectors, particularly the weaker sections of the society engaged in non-industrial activities, by providing guarantee cover to the loans and advances granted by the credit institutions to small and needy borrowers covered under the priority sector.

With a view to integrating the functions of deposit insurance and credit guarantee, the above two organisations (DIC & CGCI) were merged and the present Deposit Insurance and Credit Guarantee Corporation (DICGC) came into existence on July 15, 1978. Consequently, the title of Deposit Insurance Act, 1961 was changed to 'The Deposit Insurance and Credit Guarantee Corporation Act, 1961'.   

The objective of DICGC

The functions of the DICGC are governed by the provisions of 'The Deposit Insurance and Credit Guarantee Corporation Act, 1961' (DICGC Act) and 'The Deposit Insurance and Credit Guarantee Corporation General Regulations, 1961' framed by the Reserve Bank of India in exercise of the powers conferred by sub-section (3) of Section 50 of the said Act.

Management of DICGC: The authorised capital of the Corporation is 50 crore, which is fully issued and subscribed by the Reserve Bank of India (RBI). The management of the Corporation vests with its Board of Directors, of which a Deputy Governor of the RBI is the Chairman. The Head Office of the Corporation is in Mumbai. An Executive Director is in overall charge of its day-to-day operations. It has four Departments, viz. Accounts, Deposit Insurance, Credit Guarantee and Administration, under the supervision of other Senior Officers.

Banks covered by Deposit Insurance Scheme

(I) All commercial banks including the branches of foreign banks functioning in India, Local Area Banks and Regional Rural Banks.

(II) Co-operative Banks - All eligible co-operative banks as defined in Section 2(gg) of the DICGC Act are covered by the Deposit Insurance Scheme. All State, Central and Primary co-operative banks functioning in the States/Union Territories which have amended their Co-operative Societies Act as required under the DICGC Act, 1961, empowering RBI to order the Registrar of Co-operative Societies of the respective States/Union Territories to wind up a co-operative bank or to supersede its committee of management and requiring the Registrar not to take any action for winding up, amalgamation or reconstruction of a co-operative bank without prior sanction in writing from the RBI, are treated as eligible banks. At present all Co-operative banks are covered by the Scheme. The Union Territories of Lakshadweep and Dadra and Nagar Haveli do not have Co-operative Banks.

Insurance coverage

Initially, under the provisions of Section 16(1) of the DICGC Act, the insurance cover was limited to 1,500/- only per depositor(s) for deposits held by him (them) in the "same right and in the same capacity" in all the branches of the bank taken together. However, the Act also empowers the Corporation to raise this limit with the prior approval of the Central Government. Accordingly, the insurance limit was enhanced from time to time as follows:

5,000/- with effect from 1st January 1968
10,000/- with effect from 1st April 1970
20,000/- with effect from 1st January 1976
30,000/- with effect from 1st July 1980
1,00,000/- with effect from 1st May 1993 onwards.

Types of Deposits Covered

DICGC insures all bank deposits, such as saving, fixed, current, and recurring, etc. except the following types of deposits.

Deposits of foreign Governments;
Deposits of Central/State Governments;
Inter-bank deposits
Deposits of the State Land Development Banks with the State co-operative banks;
Any amount due on account of and deposit received outside India
Any amount which has been specifically exempted by the corporation with the previous approval of the RBI.

Board of Directors

Chairman: Shri N.S.Vishwanathan (Deputy Governor, Reserve Bank of India, Mumbai)
Nominated by the Reserve Bank of India under Section 6(1)(a) of The Deposit Insurance and Credit Guarantee Corporation (DICGC) Act, 1961.

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