Important Vocabulary Notes for Competitive Examinations (Set-189)
Example : Holding placards such as “Shed hate, not blood,” scores of people gathered at Jantar Mantar on Wednesday to protest against rising cases of mob violence in the name of "protecting" the cow and nationalism.
1. Placard [plak-ahrd, -erd]
Noun : a paperboard sign or notice, as one posted in a public place or carried by a demonstrator or picketer; Armor. placate2.
Verb : to display placards on or in; to publicize, announce, or advertise by means of placards; to post as a placard.
Synonyms : advertisement, banner, billboard, handbill, marquee, poster, signboard.
2. Mob [mob]
Noun : a disorderly or riotous crowd of people; a crowd bent on or engaged in lawless violence; any group or collection of persons or things.
Adjective : of, relating to, or characteristic of a lawless, irrational, disorderly, or riotous crowd; directed at or reflecting the lowest intellectual level of the common people; the mob mentality.
Verb : to crowd around noisily, as from curiosity or hostility; to attack in a riotous mob.
Synonyms : clan, crowd, flock, gang, horde, mass, riot, swarm, throng, troop.
Antonyms : individual, single.
Example : The lack of seismic sedimentary basin data had been hampering the oil and gas exploration and production sector, the minister said, adding that 52% of India’s sedimentary basins had not been appraised as yet.
3. Seismic [sahyz-mik, sahys-]
Adjective : pertaining to, of the nature of, or caused by an earthquake or vibration of the earth, whether due to natural or artificial causes.
Synonyms : basaltic, tectonic, quaky, quivering, tremorous, tremulous, vibrational, churning.
Antonyms : ethereal, insubstantial, subtle, vaporous, constant, fixed, motionless.
4. Appraise [uh-preyz]
Verb : to estimate the monetary value of; determine the worth of; assess; to estimate the nature, quality, importance, etc.
Synonyms : assess, audit, calculate, check out, evaluate, examine, gauge.
Antonyms : ignore, neglect.
Example : The company then submits an application to the government, which puts that block up for bid.
5. Bid [bid]
Verb : to command; order; direct; to express (a greeting, farewell, benediction, or wish); Commerce. to offer (a certain sum) as the price one will pay or charge; Cards. to enter a bid of (a given quantity or suit); to summon by invitation; invite.
Noun : an act or instance of bidding.
Synonyms : advance, offer, price, proposal, request, suggestion, amount, declaration.
Antonyms : withdrawal, denial, refusal.
Example : Mr. Pradhan added that the recently-concluded discovered small field (DSF) bid round, though small, was encouraging as it gave an insight into the investment appetite of the sector.
6. Appetite [ap-i-tahyt]
Noun : a desire for food or drink; a desire to satisfy any bodily need or craving; a desire or liking for something; fondness; taste.
Synonyms : craving, demand, fondness, greed, hunger, inclination, longing, lust, passion, penchant, propensity, stomach, taste, thirst, weakness.
Antonyms : apathy, disinclination, dislike, hate, hatred, indifference, lethargy.
Example : Open acreage rules may enable exploration of 2.8 million square kilometres of sedimentary basins.
7. Acreage [ey-ker-ij]
Noun : extent or area in acres; acres collectively; a plot of land amounting to approximately one acre.
Synonyms : expanse, holding, parcel, plot, property, back forty, real estate.
Example : The Election Commission’s order disqualifying Madhya Pradesh Minister Narottam Mishra for three years is an important step in curbing ‘paid news’ in the electoral arena.
8. Curb [kurb]
Noun : especially of joined stones or concrete, along a street or roadway, forming an edge for a sidewalk; anything that restrains or controls; a restraint; check; an enclosing framework or border.
Synonyms : barrier, ledge, rein, restraint, restriction, border, brake, bridle, chain.
Antonyms : freedom, center, encouragement, inside, interior, middle, opening.
Example : The EC has called paid news, a term that refers to propaganda in favour of a candidate masquerading as news reports or articles, a “grave electoral malpractice” on the part of candidates to circumvent expenditure limits.
9. Propaganda [prop-uh-gan-duh]
Noun : information, ideas, or rumors deliberately spread widely to help or harm a person, group, movement, institution, nation, etc.; the deliberate spreading of such information, rumors, etc.; the particular doctrines or principles propagated by an organization or movement.
Synonyms : disinformation, hype, indoctrination, publicity, advertising, agitprop, announcement, brainwashing, doctrine.
Antonym : truth.
10. Masquerade [mas-kuh-reyd]
Noun : a party, dance, or other festive gathering of persons wearing masks and other disguises, and often elegant, historical, or fantastic costumes; a costume or disguise worn at such a gathering; false outward show; façade; pretense.
Verb : to go about under false pretenses or a false character; assume the character of; give oneself out to be.
Synonyms : carnival, circus, cloak, color, costume, cover, cover-up, deception, dissimulation.
Antonyms : honesty, openness, reality, truth.