Important Vocabulary Notes for Competitive Examinations (Set-181)
Example : They simply underscore ongoing cooperation in such fields — as well as in the defence sector, India being one of the biggest buyers of Israeli military equipment.
1. Underscore [verb uhn-der-skawr, -skohr, uhn-der-skawr, -skohr; noun
Verb : to mark with a line or lines underneath; underline, as for emphasis; to stress; emphasize.
Noun : a line drawn beneath something written or printed.
Synonyms : accentuate, highlight, indicate, mark, stress, accent, caption, feature, italicize, call attention to, draw attention to, give emphasis, point to.
Example : India’s monumental heritage is on the brink of a shameful shift.
2. Heritage [her-i-tij]
Noun : something that is handed down from the past, as a tradition; something that comes or belongs to one by reason of birth; an inherited lot or portion; something reserved for one.
Synonyms : ancestry, culture, custom, legacy, right, tradition, bequest, birthright, convention, dowry, endowment.
3. Brink [bringk]
Noun : the edge or margin of a steep place or of land bordering water; any extreme edge; verge; a crucial or critical point, especially of a situation or state beyond which success or catastrophe occurs.
Synonyms : fringe, periphery, threshold, verge, border, boundary, brim, frontier, limit, lip, margin, perimeter.
Antonyms : center, middle, inside, interior.
Example : Why is this security net necessary, and why is its proposed infringement shameful?
4. Infringement [in-frinj-muh nt]
Noun : a breach or infraction, as of a law, right, or obligation; violation; transgression; an act of infringing.
Synonyms : infraction, invasion, transgression, violation.
Antonym : obedience.
Example : Just as this is done to prevent human-animal conflict, zoning around monuments is necessary to prevent monuments from defacement and to prevent the present from displacing the past by marring historical landscapes.
5. Zone [zohn]
Noun : any continuous area that differs in some respect, or is distinguished for some purpose, from adjoining areas, or within which certain distinctive circumstances exist or are established; the total number of available railroad terminals within a given circumference around a given shipping center.
Verb : to mark with zones or bands; to divide into zones, tracts, areas, etc., as according to existing characteristics or as distinguished for some purpose; to divide (a city, town, neighborhood, etc.) into areas subject to special restrictions on any existing or proposed buildings; to encircle or surround with a zone, girdle, belt, or the like.
Synonyms : banding, bordering, bounding, circumscribing, delimiting, girdling, marking, configurating.
6. Deface [dih-feys]
Verb : to mar the surface or appearance of; disfigure; to efface, obliterate, or injure the surface of, as to make illegible or invalid.
Related forms : defacement, noun.
Synonyms : disfigurement, impairment, vandalism.
7. Mar [mahr]
Verb : to damage or spoil to a certain extent; render less perfect, attractive, useful, etc.; impair or spoil; to disfigure, deface, or scar.
Synonyms : blight, bruise, harm, impair, ruin, scar, spoil, stain, sully, taint.
Antonyms : aid, assist, build, clean, create, fix, grow, help, adorn.
Example : The 2013 report of the Comptroller and Auditor General (CAG) noted that of the 1,655 monuments whose records were scrutinised and which were physically inspected, 546 of them were encroached.
8. Scrutinise [skroot-n-ahyz]
Verb : to examine in detail with careful or critical attention; to conduct a scrutiny.
Synonyms : analyze, check, check out, comb, consider, dissect, explore, inspect, investigate, look over, peruse.
Antonyms : forget, ignore, neglect, misunderstand.
9. Encroach [en-krohch]
Verb : to advance beyond proper, established, or usual limits; make gradual inroads; to trespass upon the property, domain, or rights of another, especially stealthily or by gradual advances.
Synonyms : horn in, impinge, infringe, intrude, trespass, usurp, appropriate, arrogate, crash, entrench.
Antonyms : give, ignore, keep off.
Example : As the files of the ASI reveal, there are also numerous instances where politicians have proactively protected those who have illegally occupied the prohibited zone around monuments.
10. Proactive [proh-ak-tiv]
Adjective : serving to prepare for, intervene in, or control an expected occurrence or situation, especially a negative or difficult one; anticipatory.
Related forms : proactively, adverb.