Practice Quiz For IBPS, RBI Exam 2018 (English Reading Comprehension) SET-153
Submitted by admin on Fri, 11/17/2017 - 07:04
Practice Quiz For IBPS, RBI Exam 2018
(English Reading Comprehension)
Directions (Q.1-10) Each of the reading comprehension
questions is based on the content of a passage. After reading the passage,
answer all questions pertaining to it on the basis of what is stated or implied
in the passage. For each question, select the best answer of the choices given.
In terrestrial environments, gravity places special demands
on the cardiovascular systems of animals. Gravitational pressure can cause blood
to pool in the lower regions of the body, making it difficult to circulate blood
to critical organs such as the brain. Terrestrial snakes, in particular, exhibit
adaptations that aid in circulating blood against the force of gravity. The
problem confronting terrestrial snakes is best illustrated by what happens to
sea snakes when removed from their supportive medium. Because the vertical
pressure gradients within the blood vessels are counteracted by similar pressure
gradients in the surrounding water, the distribution of blood throughout the
body of sea snakes remains about the same regardless of their orientation in
space, provided they remain in the ocean. When removed from the water and tilted
at various angles with the head up, however, blood pressure at their midpoint
drops significantly, and at brain level falls to zero. That many terrestrial
snakes in similar spatial orientations do not experience this kind of
circulatory failure suggests that certain adaptations enable them to regulate
blood pressure more effectively in those orientations.
One such adaptation is the closer proximity of the terrestrial snake’s heart to
its head, which helps to ensure circulation to the brain, regardless of the
snake’s orientation in space. The heart of sea snakes can be located near the
middle of the body, a position that minimizes the work entailed in circulating
blood to both extremities. In arboreal snakes, however, which dwell in trees and
often assume a vertical posture, the average distance from the heart to the head
can be as little as 15 percent of overall body length. Such a location requires
that blood circulated to the tail of the snake travel a greater distance back to
the heart, a problem solved by another adaptation. When climbing, arboreal
snakes often pause momentarily to wiggle their bodies, causing waves of muscle
contraction that advance from the lower torso to the head. By compressing the
veins and forcing blood forward, these contractions apparently improve the flow
of venous blood returning to the heart.
1. The passage provides information in support of which of the following
assertions? (A) The disadvantages of an adaptation to a particular feature of an
environment often outweigh the advantages of such an adaptation.
(B) An organism’s reaction to being placed in an environment to which it is not
well adapted can sometimes illustrate the problems that have been solved by the
adaptations of organisms indigenous to that environment.
(C) The effectiveness of an organism’s adaptation to a particular feature of its
environment can only be evaluated by examining the effectiveness with which
organisms of another species have adapted to a similar feature of a different
(D) Organisms of the same species that inhabit strikingly different environments
will often adapt in remarkably similar ways to the few features of those
environments that are common.
(E) Different species of organisms living in the same environment will seldom
adapt to features of that environment in the same way.
2. According to the passage, one reason that the distribution of blood in the
sea snake changes little while the creature remains in the ocean is that? (A) the heart of the sea snake tends to be located near the center of its
(B) pressure gradients in the water surrounding the sea snake counter the
effects of vertical pressure gradients within its blood vessels
(C) the sea snake assumes a vertical posture less frequently than do the
terrestrial and the arboreal snake
(D) the sea snake often relies on waves of muscle contractions to help move
blood from the torso to the head
(E) the force of pressure gradients in the water surrounding the sea snake
exceeds that of vertical pressure gradients within its circulatory system
3. It can be inferred from the passage that which of the following is true of
species of terrestrial snakes that often need to assume a vertical posture? (A) They are more likely to be susceptible to circulatory failure in
vertical postures than are sea snakes.
(B) Their hearts are less likely to be located at the midpoint of their bodies
than is the case with sea snakes.
(C) They cannot counteract the pooling of blood in lower regions of their bodies
as effectively as sea snakes can.
(D) The blood pressure at their midpoint decreases significantly when they are
tilted with their heads up.
(E) They are unable to rely on muscle contractions to move venous blood from the
lower torso to the head.
4. The author describes the behavior of the circulatory system of sea snakes
when they are removed from the ocean primarily in order to (A) illustrate what would occur in the circulatory system of terrestrial
snakes without adaptations that enable them to regulate their blood pressure in
(B) explain why arboreal snakes in vertical orientations must rely on muscle
contractions to restore blood pressure to the brain
(C) illustrate the effects of circulatory failure on the behavior of arboreal
(D) illustrate the superiority of the circulatory system of the terrestrial
snake to that of the sea snake
(E) explain how changes in spatial orientation can adversely affect the
circulatory system of snakes with hearts located in relatively close proximity
to their heads
5. It can be inferred from the passage that which of the following is a true
statement about sea snakes? (A) They frequently rely on waves of muscle contractions from the lower
torso to the head to supplement the work of the heart.
(B) They cannot effectively regulate their blood pressure when placed in
seawater and tilted at an angle with the head pointed downward.
(C) They are more likely to have a heart located in close proximity to their
heads than are arboreal snakes.
(D) They become acutely vulnerable to the effects of gravitational pressure on
their circulatory system when they are placed in a terrestrial environment.
(E) Their cardiovascular system is not as complicated as that of arboreal
6. The author suggests that which of the following is a disadvantage that
results from the location of a snake’s heart in close proximity to its head? (A) A decrease in the efficiency with which the snake regulates the flow of
blood to the brain
(B) A decrease in the number of orientations in space that a snake can assume
without loss of blood flow to the brain
(C) A decrease in blood pressure at the snake’s midpoint when it is tilted at
various angles with its head up
(D) An increase in the tendency of blood to pool at the snake’s head when the
snake is tilted at various angles with its head down
(E) An increase in the amount of effort required to distribute blood to and from
the snake’s tail
7. The primary purpose of the lines in bold/italics is to (A) introduce a topic that is not discussed earlier in the passage
(B) describe a more efficient method of achieving an effect discussed in the
(C) draw a conclusion based on information elaborated in the previous paragraph
(D) discuss two specific examples of phenomena mentioned at the end of the
(E) introduce evidence that undermines a vie reported earlier in the passage
8. In the passage, the author is primarily concerned with doing which of the
following? (A) Explaining adaptations that enable the terrestrial snake to cope with
the effects of gravitational pressure on its circulatory system
(B) Comparing the circulatory system of the sea snake with that of the
(C) Explaining why the circulatory system of the terrestrial snake is different
from that of the sea snake
(D) Pointing out features of the terrestrial snake’s cardiovascular system that
make it superior to that of the sea snake
(E) Explaining how the sea snake is able to neutralize the effects of
gravitational pressure on its circulatory system
9. What is the synonym of the word ‘arboreal’ in the given paragraph? (A) herbivorous
10. What is the antonym of the word ‘proximity’ in the given paragraph? (A) closeness
ANSWER KEYS: 1. Ans. (b) 2. Ans. (b) 3. Ans. (b) 4.
Ans. (a) 5. Ans. (d) 6. Ans. (e) 7. Ans. (d) 8. Ans. (a) 9. Ans. (b) 10. Ans.